奇物志·猿

母猿生了双胞胎,她溺爱一个,讨厌另一个。她把溺爱的抱在怀里,而被讨厌的那个只能抓住她的背。怀抱的那个被母猿抱得太紧而不小心憋死,抓在背上得活下来。猿喜欢模仿人的动作,猎人就把套索当鞋穿,然后躲起来。等猿把套索当鞋穿的时候抓捕。猿在新月时很开心月缺时悲伤。欧洲奇物志往往把猿比作恶魔,魔鬼嘲笑恶人,把他们怀抱着带进地狱。

大英图书馆,Harley MS 4751,Folio 11r


拉丁名:Simia
其他名称:Callitrix,Cerocopithecus,Cynoc​​ephalus,Guenon,Satyrus,Singe,Sphinx
之所以称为“ simia”,是因为它与人类相似

General Attributes

The female ape always gives birth to twins, one of which she loves and the other she hates. When she carries her young, she holds the one she loves in her arms, but the one she hates must cling to her back. When the ape is pursued by a hunter, she tires from running while carrying her two children; when she is in danger of being caught, she drops the child she loves in order to escape, but the one she hates continues to cling to her back and is saved.
一般属性
雌猿总是会生双胞胎,她爱其中一个,却讨厌另一个。她将自己溺爱的那只抱在怀里,但是她讨厌的那只小猿背在背上。当猿猴被猎人追赶时,她带着两个孩子不能快速奔跑;当她有被抓住的危险时,为了逃命她抛弃自己所爱的孩子,但她讨厌的那个孩子继续紧抓着她的身体,从而得以保存。

There are five types of apes. The first is called cericopithicus and has a tail. The second, with rough hair, is called sphinx, and is docile, not wild. The third is cynocephalus, with a head like a dog and a long tail. The fourth, the satyrus, is lively and has a pleasant face. The fifth, called callitrix, has a long beard on its pointed face, and has a wide tail.

猿有五种类型。第一个叫cericopithicus,有尾巴。第二种头发粗糙,被称为sphinx狮身人面,温顺而不是狂野。第三个叫做cynocephalus,脑袋小而畸形,头部像狗,尾巴很长。第四种叫做Satyrus,生动活泼,脸色宜人。第五种叫做Callitrix,尖头上留着长胡须,尾巴很宽。
Apes are happy at the new moon but grow sad as it wanes. At the equinox they urinate seven times. Apes are said to be ugly, dirty beasts with flat and wrinkled noses; their rear parts are particularly horrible.

猿猴对新月很高兴,但随着它的消逝而变得悲伤。在春分时,它们排尿七次。据说猿是丑陋、肮脏的动物,鼻子平坦而皱纹。它们的屁股特别恐怖。

Allegory/Moral

The ape is usually equated with the devil. It is said, that just as apes have a head but no tail, Satan began as an angel in heaven, but “he lost his tail, because he will perish totally at the end”. In Philippe de Thaon’s Bestiaire it is said that the devil mocks evil-doers and will carry them in front of him to hell, while the good remain behind his back with God.
寓意/道德
猿通常被等同于恶魔。据说,就像猿猴有头却没有尾巴一样,撒但开始是天堂里的天使,但“他失去了尾巴,因为他会在最后完全灭亡”。在菲利普·德·泰翁的《 Bestiaire》(《奇兽志》)中,据说魔鬼嘲笑邪恶的人,并将他们怀抱着带到地狱,而善良的却与上帝同在。

Sources (chronological order)
Aesop’s Fables [6th century BCE] ( Temple 307): Apes give birth two two children. One the mother loves and cares for, the other she despises and neglects. However, the one the mother loves she holds in so tight an embrace that it suffocates, while the neglected child survives.

伊索寓言[公元前6世纪]:猿类生下两个孩子。母亲疼爱和关心其中一个,却讨厌和忽视另一个。然而,母亲紧紧地拥抱着所爱的那个,以至于令其窒息而死,而被忽视的孩子却得以幸存。

Pliny the Elder [1st century CE] (Natural History, Book 8, 80): Apes are cunning animals. It is said that they put on as shoes the nooses set out to snare them, imitating the hunters. According to Mucianus the tailed species of apes can detect at a glance false nuts made of wax, can play at draughts, and are depressed at the waning of the moon but are delighted with the new moon. Apes are affectionate toward their young; they sometimes accidentally kill their babies by hugging them. The ape called cynocephalis is fierce, but the one called satyris is gentle. Apes cannot live anywhere but in Ethiopia, their native country.

老普林尼[公元1世纪](自然史,第8、80卷):猿是狡猾的动物。据说它们模仿猎人把套索当作鞋子穿,从而被猎人抓捕。穆西亚努斯认为,有尾巴的猿猴一眼就能够区分蜡制的假坚果,还会玩跳棋(droughts)游戏,在月缺时会沮丧,但对新月感到高兴。猿对幼崽很爱护,但有时会因拥抱太紧而意外杀死婴儿。有一种叫做食蟹猴的猿是凶猛的,但是叫做Satyris沙爹瑞斯的猿是温和的。猿只能在其发源地埃塞俄比亚居住。

Isidore of Seville [7th century CE] (Etymologies, Book 12, 2:30-31): Apes (simiae) take their name from a Greek word meaning “with pushed in noses”, because of their ugly noses. Others say that that the name is from the perceived similarity to humans, but this, says Isidore, is false. Apes rejoice during the new moon but are sad when it is in other phases. They love their children and carry them in front of themselves; if a child is neglected it clings to its mother. There are five species of ape: ceropitheci have tails; sphynxes have shaggy hair and prominent breasts, and are gentle; cynocephali have a dog-like face; satyrs have a pleasant face but are restless; callitriches are unlike the others in almost all of their features.

塞维利亚的伊西多尔[公元7世纪](词源,第12书,2:30-31):猿猴(simiae)的名字取自希腊语,意思是“鼻子塌进去”,因为它们的鼻子很丑陋。其他人则说这个名字是源于与人类的相似之处,但是伊西多尔说,这是错误的。猿在新月期间会很高兴,但在其它时间会感到悲伤。他们爱自己的孩子,并将他们抱在自己的怀里。被忽略的那个孩子,紧紧抓住母亲背部。猿有五种:ceropitheci 猿猴有尾巴;sphynxes猿毛发蓬松,乳房突出,并且温柔。cynocephali食蟹猴的脸像狗。satyrs猿的面孔令人愉悦,但躁动不安; callitriches几乎在所有特征上都与其它猿不同。

Richard de Fournival (Bestiaire d’Amour 19, 3): The hunter knows that the ape likes to imitate what people do, so he makes a show of putting on and taking off his boots when he knows the ape is watching. He then hides, leaving a boot behind. The ape puts on the boot, and the hunter catches the ape before it can take off the boot and escape.

理查德·德·弗尼瓦尔(Richard de Fournival)(Bestiaire d’Amour)19,3):猎人知道猿喜欢模仿人们的行为,因此当他知道猿正在注视时,他会穿上和脱下靴子。然后他躲起来,留下靴子。猿猴穿上靴子,猎人就在猿猴脱下靴子逃脱以前将它们抓住。

Illustration

Most illustrations show the mother ape with two children, one held in front and the other clinging to her back. The story of the ape trying on boots is also sometimes illustrated. Apes are often used in marginal illustrations in manuscripts, where they are shown imitating some human behavior; common scenes show the ape as a knight riding a horse, or examining a flask of urine in mockery of a medieval physician.
插图
大多数插图都显示母猿有两个孩子,一个抱在前面,另一个背在她的背上。有时还会说明猿类尝试穿靴子的故事。猿经常用在画在手稿的边缘插图中,显示它们正模仿人类的行为。常见的场景把猿是画成骑马的骑士,或者正检查一瓶尿液来嘲弄中世纪医师。

羚羊

欧洲中世纪的《奇兽志》记载,羚羊(Antelope)的角像锯子,可以锯倒树木。羚羊是如此野蛮并善于奔跑,以至于猎人无法捕捉到它,除了一种情况:当羚羊渴了时,它去幼发拉底河喝水,但是当它在那儿的异头草丛(Herecine)中嬉戏时,它的角被灌木枝缠住无法挣脱自己,于是发出大声嚎叫。 猎人听到它的叫声,就来杀死它。

The ANTALOPS is an animal of incomparable celecity, so much so that no hunter can ever get it.

It has long horns shaped like a saw, with the result that it can even cut down very big trees and fell them to the ground.

When it is thirsty, it goes to the great River Euphrates, and drinks.

Now there is in those parts a shrub called Herecine, which has subtile, long twigs. Coming therefore to the shrub, it begins to play with the Herccine with its horns, and, while it plays, it entangles the horns in the twigs. When it cannot get free after a long Struggle, it cries With a loud bellow. But the hunter, hearing its voice, comes and kills it.

中世纪的《奇兽志》伴随着道德说教,主要围绕着基督教义。羚羊的两个角象征《圣经》的《新约》和《旧约》,用来剪除恶习,挣脱邪恶的束缚。但是在灌木丛中嬉戏而忘了自己,就很容易成为猎物。

The antelope’s two horns represent the biblical Old and New Testaments, with which people can cut themselves free of vice. People are also warned not to play in the “thickets of worldliness” where pleasure kills body and soul.